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|Short abstractCritical to the advancement of bionic technology that emulates or extends normal physiological function is the design of extreme interfaces between the human body and electromechanics. In this talk, I describe research activities underway to advance the science of mechanical and electrical interface design. I present novel prosthetic and orthotic limbs that behave dynamically like their biological counterpart, peripheral neural implants that serve as an electrical interface with the external bionic limb, and novel osseointegration technology for the mechanical and neural transmission of the bionic device to the biological limb. Further, I present a digital nervous system designed to artificially control paralyzed musculature for the restoration of motor function for persons with limb pathology. Finally, critical areas of future research are discussed that must be advanced to step towards the next generation of bionic leg systems.
|Short biosketchHugh Herr, PhD, is associate Professor, Media Arts and Sciences and associate Professor, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology. He directs the Biomechatronics group at The MIT Media Lab. His research program seeks to advance technologies that promise to accelerate the merging of body and machine, including device architectures that resemble the body’s musculoskeletal design, actuator technologies that behave like muscle, and control methodologies that exploit principles of biological movement. His methods encompass a diverse set of scientific and technological disciplines, from the science of biomechanics and biological movement control to the design of biomedical devices for the treatment of human physical disability. His research accomplishments in science and technology have already made a significant impact on physically challenged people. The Transfemoral Quasipassive Knee Prosthesis has been commercialized by Össur Inc., and is now benefiting amputees throughout the world. In 2006, he founded the company iWalk Inc. to commercialize the Powered Ankle-Foot Prosthesis and other bionic leg devices.Visit his website: http://biomech.media.mit.edu
|Short abstractOver the past few decades, robotic systems for surgical interventions have undergone tremendous transformation. The goal of a surgical intervention is to try to do it as minimally invasively as possible, since that significantly reduces post-operative morbidity, reduces recovery time, and also leads to lower healthcare costs. However, minimally invasive surgical interventions for a range of procedures will require a significant change in the healthcare paradigm for both diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Advances in surgical interventions will benefit from “patient-specific robotic tools” to deliver optimal diagnosis and therapy. Hence, this talk will focus on the development of continuum, flexible, and 3D-printed robotic systems that could be patient-specific. Since, these robotic systems could operate in an imaging environment, we will also address challenges in image-guided interventions. This talk will present examples from neurosurgery and endovascular interventions to highlight the applicability of 3-D printed robotic systems for surgery.
|Short biosketchDr. Jaydev P. Desai is currently a Professor and BME Distinguished Faculty Fellow in the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech. He is also the Director of the Georgia Center for Medical Robotics (GCMR) and the Associate Director of the Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Machines (IRIM). He completed his undergraduate studies from the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India, in 1993. He received his M.A. in Mathematics in 1997, M.S. and Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics in 1995 and 1998 respectively, all from the University of Pennsylvania. He was also a Post-Doctoral Fellow in the Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Harvard University. He is a recipient of several NIH R01 grants, NSF CAREER award, and was also the lead inventor on the “Outstanding Invention in Physical Science Category” at the University of Maryland, College Park, where he was formerly employed. He is also the recipient of the Ralph R. Teetor Educational Award. He has been an invited speaker at the National Academy of Sciences “Distinctive Voices” seminar series and was also invited to attend the National Academy of Engineering’s U.S. Frontiers of Engineering Symposium. He has over 160 publications, is the founding Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Medical Robotics Research, and Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Medical Robotics (currently in production). His research interests are primarily in the area of image-guided surgical robotics, rehabilitation robotics, cancer diagnosis at the micro-scale, and grasping. He is a Fellow of IEEE, ASME and AIMBE.
Visit his website: http://www.medicalrobotics.gatech.edu
|Short abstractThe ability to efficiently move in complex environments is a fundamental property both for animals and for robots, and the problem of locomotion and movement control is an area in which neuroscience, biomechanics, and robotics can fruitfully interact. In this talk, I will present how biorobots and numerical models can be used to explore the interplay of the four main components underlying animal locomotion, namely central pattern generators (CPGs), reflexes, descending modulation, and the musculoskeletal system. Going from lamprey to human locomotion, I will present a series of models that tend to show that the respective roles of these components have changed during evolution with a dominant role of CPGs in lamprey and salamander locomotion, and a more important role for sensory feedback and descending modulation in human locomotion. Interesting properties for robot and lower-limb exoskeleton locomotion control will also be discussed.
|Short biosketchAuke Ijspeert is a full professor at the EPFL (the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology at Lausanne), and head of the Biorobotics Laboratory (BioRob). He has a B.Sc./M.Sc. in physics from the EPFL (1995), and a PhD in artificial intelligence from the University of Edinburgh (1999). He carried out postdocs at IDSIA and EPFL, and at the University of Southern California (USC). His research interests are at the intersection between robotics, computational neuroscience, nonlinear dynamical systems, and applied machine learning. He is interested in using numerical simulations and robots to get a better understanding of animal locomotion and movement control, and in using inspiration from biology to design novel types of robots and locomotion controllers (see for instance Ijspeert et al, Science, Vol. 315. no. 5817, pp. 1416 - 1420, 2007 and Ijspeert, Science Vol. 346, no. 6206, 2014). With his colleagues, he has received paper awards at ICRA2002, CLAWAR2005, IEEE Humanoids 2007, IEEE ROMAN 2014, and CLAWAR 2015. He was an associate editor for the IEEE Transactions on Robotics (2009-2013), and is since July 2015 member of the Board of Reviewing Editors of Science magazine. He has acted as guest editor for the Proceedings of IEEE, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Autonomous Robots, IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, and Biological Cybernetics. He has been the organizer of 6 international conferences (BioADIT2004, SAB2004, AMAM2005, BioADIT2006, LATSIS2006, SSRR2016), and a program committee member of over 60 conferences.Visit his website: http://biorob.epfl.ch
|Short abstractThe field of micro and nano robotics has made impressive strides over the past decade as researchers have created a variety of small devices capable of locomotion within liquid environments. Robust fabrication techniques have been developed, some devices have been functionalized for potential applications, and therapies are being actively considered. While excitement remains high for this field, a number of challenges must be addressed if continued progress towards clinical relevance is to be made, including the development of bioerodable and non-cytotoxic microrobots, development of autonomous devices capable of self-directed targeting, catheter-based delivery of microrobots near the target, and tracking and control of swarms of devices in vivo. As we consider advancements that are on the horizon, it becomes clear that the field of micro and nanorobotics is moving away from hard microfabricated devices and towards soft, polymeric structures capable of shape modification induced by environmental conditions and other “smart” behaviors. Just as the field of robotics witnessed the emergence of “soft robotics” in which soft and deformable materials are used as primary structural components, the field of microrobotics is beginning to experience a move towards “soft microrobots.” Soft microrobots are made of soft, deformable materials capable of sensing and actuation and have the potential to exhibit behavioral response. As we develop more complex soft microrobots, we are poised to realize intelligent microrobots that autonomously respond to their environment to perform more complex tasks.
|Short BiosketchThe field of micro and nano robotics has made impressive strides over the past decade as researchers have created a variety of small devices capable of locomotion within liquid environments. Robust fabrication techniques have been developed, some devices have been functionalized for potential applications, and therapies are being actively considered. While excitement remains high for this field, a number of challenges must be addressed if continued progress towards clinical relevance is to be made, including the development of bioerodable and non-cytotoxic microrobots, development of autonomous devices capable of self-directed targeting, catheter-based delivery of microrobots near the target, and tracking and control of swarms of devices in vivo. As we consider advancements that are on the horizon, it becomes clear that the field of micro and nanorobotics is moving away from hard microfabricated devices and towards soft, polymeric structures capable of shape modification induced by environmental conditions and other “smart” behaviors. Just as the field of robotics witnessed the emergence of “soft robotics” in which soft and deformable materials are used as primary structural components, the field of microrobotics is beginning to experience a move towards “soft microrobots.” Soft microrobots are made of soft, deformable materials capable of sensing and actuation and have the potential to exhibit behavioral response. As we develop more complex soft microrobots, we are poised to realize intelligent microrobots that autonomously respond to their environment to perform more complex tasks. Bio: Brad Nelson has been the Professor of Robotics and Intelligent Systems at ETH Zürich since 2002. He has over thirty years of experience in the field of robotics and has received a number of awards in the fields of robotics, nanotechnology, and biomedicine. Visit his website: http://www.msrl.ethz.ch
|Short abstractExoskeletons and active prostheses could improve mobility for tens of millions of people, but two serious challenges must first be overcome: we need ways of identifying what a device should do to benefit an individual user, and we need cheap, efficient hardware that can do it. In this talk, we will describe an approach to the design of wearable robots, based on versatile emulator systems and algorithms that automatically customize assistance, which we call human-in-the-loop optimization. We will also discuss the design of exoskeletons that use no energy themselves yet reduce the energy cost of human walking, and efficient, electroadhesive actuators that could make wearable robots substantially cheaper and more efficient.
|Short BiosketchSteven H. Collins is an Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Stanford University, where he directs the Prosthesis and Exoskeleton Research Laboratory and teaches courses on Design and Biomechanics. He received his B.S. from Cornell University in 2002 and his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 2008, and performed postdoctoral research at T.U. Delft. He has published in Science and Nature. He is a member of the scientific board of Dynamic Walking. He is a recipient of the ASB Young Scientist Award, an ICRA Best Medical Devices Paper winner, and an award-winning teacher.Visit his website: http://biomechatronics.cit.cmu.edu/
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|Short abstractWith improvement in micro technology and understanding of the neural basis of motor function, science is making progress in interfacing the human brain. Implantable Brain-Computer Interfaces enable paralyzed people to control robot arms by imagining their own limbs to move, but in spite of progress, this technology has remained experimental and laboratory-bound. Researchers at the University Medical Center of Utrecht recently succeeded in translating similar technology to an implants that works at the home of severely paralyzed people, enabling them to control software for communication. In this lecture this first case is presented, and the envisioned further enhancement of the BCI technology is discussed.
|Short biosketchBio: Nick Ramsey has a degree in Psychology and a PhD in neuro-psychopharmacology, both from the university of Utrecht (Netherlands). He became a specialist in cognitive neuroimaging in the US (National Institutes of Health), and applies modern techniques, including fMRI and intracranial EEG, to questions on working memory, language, and sensorimotor function. His primary goal is to acquire and translate neuro-scientific insights to patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders, with a focus on brain-computer interfacing. He is full professor in cognitive neuroscience at the department of neurology and neurosurgery of the UMC Utrecht since 2007. He has been awarded several personal grants including a VIDI (NWO, 2002) for elucidating working memory, a VICI (NWO, 2006) and later a European ERC Advanced grant for developing intracranial BCI concepts for paralyzed people. The BCI research resulted in an implantable prototype for locked-in patients for which a clinical trial starts in 2014 (STW). He also was awarded a STW Valorisation grant (phase 1 & 2) for starting a spin-off company to provide Clinical fMRI reports to clinicians. He has supervised over 20 PhD students and has (co)authored over 170 peer-reviewed publications.
|Short abstractNon-rigid materials are widely used in medical robotics, design and manufacturing, virtual surgery for soft robot planning, procedural rehearsal and training, etc. Identification of mechanical properties, such as tissue elasticity parameters, is critical to enable medical robots to safely operate within highly unstructured, deformable human bodies and to compute desired, accurate force feedback for individualized haptic display characterized by patient-specific parameters. In addition to medical robots, simulations are also increasingly used for rapid prototyping of clinical devices, pre-operation planning of medical procedures, virtual training exercises for surgeons and supporting personnel, etc. And, bio-tissue elasticity properties are central to developing realistic and predictive simulation and for designing responsive, dexterous surgical manipulators. Furthermore, with increasing interest in 3D printing for rapid creation of soft robots consisting of flexible materials, the ability to easily acquire material properties from existing sensor data, such as medical images and videos, can help to replicate similar material properties. In this talk, I present recent advances to determine patient-specific tissue elastic parameters from images and videos, acceleration techniques, and application to medical applications. I conclude by discussing possible future directions and new challenges.
|Short biosketchMing C. Lin is currently the Elizabeth Stevinson Iribe Chair of Computer Science at the University of Maryland College Park and John R. & Louise S. Parker Distinguished Professor Emerita of Computer Science at the University of North Carolina (UNC), Chapel Hill. She is also an honorary Chair Professor (Yangtze Scholar) at Tsinghua University in China. She obtained her B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from the University of California, Berkeley. She received several honors and awards, including the NSF Young Faculty Career Award in 1995, Honda Research Initiation Award in 1997, UNC/IBM Junior Faculty Development Award in 1999, UNC Hettleman Award for Scholarly Achievements in 2003, Beverly W. Long Distinguished Professorship 2007-2010, Carolina Women’s Center Faculty Scholar in 2008, UNC WOWS Scholar 2009-2011, IEEE VGTC Virtual Reality Technical Achievement Award in 2010, and many best paper awards at international conferences. She is a Fellow of ACM, IEEE, and Eurographics.
Her research interests include computational robotics, haptics, physically-based modeling, virtual reality, sound rendering, and geometric computing. She has (co-)authored more than 300 refereed publications in these areas and co-edited/authored four books. She has served on hundreds of program committees of leading conferences and co-chaired dozens of international conferences and workshops. She is currently a member of Computing Research Association-Women (CRA-W) Board of Directors, Chair of IEEE Computer Society (CS) Fellows Committee, Chair of IEEE CS Computer Pioneer Award, and Chair of ACM SIGGRAPH Outstanding Doctoral Dissertation Award. She is a former member of IEEE CS Board of Governors, a former Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (2011-2014), a former Chair of IEEE CS Transactions Operations Committee, and a member of several editorial boards. She also has served on several steering committees and advisory boards of international conferences, as well as government and industrial technical advisory committees.
|Short abstractThe recent rapid developments in bionanotech and micro/nanofluidic technologies has enabled the realization of miniaturized laboratories. These Labs-on-a-Chip will play an important role in future medicine, both in point-of-care devices for drug or biomarker monitoring, as well as in early diagnostic devices. We developed a pre-filled ready-to-use capillary electrophoresis platform for measuring ions in blood. It is used to monitor lithium in finger-prick blood of manic-depressive patients, but can also be used for measuring calcium in blood for prevention of milk fever, or for measuring creatinine in blood or sodium in urine for early detection of ESRD. Microfluidics can also be exploited to manipulate and experiment with cells on chip. We have developed a microsystem for sperm analysis and selection for artificial insemination, where we can electrically detect and sort healthy sperm cells. Using microdevices we have been able to electroporate and transfect genes into individual cells, and a microdroplet platform was used for encapsulation of single cells in microdroplets, ordering of these microdroplets and 1:1 fusion of these droplets to form hybridomas. Apart from diagnostic and cell manipulation devices, microfluidic devices are increasingly used to realise advanced disease and organ-models, as illustrated by the blood-brain barrier chip and a blood vessel on a chip to study atherosclerosis. These Organs on Chip may lead to more rapid and cheaper drug development, personalised medicine and improved disease models, while minimizing or even eliminating animal testing (3R principle)
|Short biosketchAlbert van den Berg received MSc in applied physics in 1983, and his PhD in 1988 both at the University of Twente, the Netherlands. From 1988-1993 he worked in Neuchatel, Switzerland, at the CSEM and the University (IMT) on miniaturized chemical sensors. From 1993 until 1999 he was research director Micro Total Analysis Systems (μTAS) at MESA, University of Twente. In 1998 he was appointed as part-time professor “Biochemical Analysis Systems”, and later in 2000 as full professor on Miniaturized Systems for (Bio)Chemical Analysis in the faculty of Electrical Engineering. In 2002 he received the Simon Stevin Master award from the Dutch Technical Science foundation (STW). In 2003 he headed a 10 MEuro national research program on nanofluidics (NanoNed). In 2005 he spent 6 months in San Diego (USA) at the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology (LIAI, group Green) during a sabbatical leave, while he received an Advanced Research Grant from ERC in 2008. In 2009 he received the Spinoza prize, the most prestigious dutch scientific award, for his achievements in lab-on-a-chip research. In 2010 he was appointed as honorary University Professor at the University of Twente. Albert van den Berg is member of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences (KNAW), the Dutch Health council, board member of the Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society, member of the Dutch chemical society (KNCV) and deputy chair of the journal Lab on a Chip. He has co-authored over 220 papers (H=36) and over 10 patents, and has been involved in > 5 spin-off companies. His current research interests focus on microanalysis systems and nanosensors, nanofluidics and single cells and tissues on chips, especially with applications in personalized health care and development of sustainable (nano)technologies
|Short abstractIn 1993, I published the book entitled “Biologically Inspired Robots Snake-Like Locomotors and Manipulators-” from Oxford University Press. It was my secret pleasure to know that the term “Biologically Inspired Robots” has become very popular since this time in Robotic community, but at the same time it was a little bit disappointing for me to know that very few of them were really used in practical applications. In this talk, I will explain about my early experiments using real snake and several studies of snake-like locomotors and manipulators. I also talk about the latest development of the snake-like robots, such as the one used for the inspection of the site of Fukukshima Daiichi Nuclear Reactors.
|Short BiosketchShigeo Hirose is the Co-founder, Representative Director, CTO of HiBot Corporation, Professor Emeritus Tokyo Institute of Technology. He received his PhD degree in 1976 in Control Engineering from Tokyo Institute of Technology, and stayed in the same university as an assistant professor, associate professor, professor, distinguished professor and director of SMS development and innovation center. His research interest is in the creative design of robotic mechanisms and control. He received more than 70 academic awards, including IEEE Inaba Technical Award for Innovation Leading to Production (2017), IEEE Robotics and Automation Award (2014), Joseph Engelberger Robotics Award (2009), Medal with Purple Ribbon from Japanese government (2006), IEEE Pioneer in Robotics & Automation Award (1999).